رفرنس دهی به روش ونکوور (فارسی و انگلیسی)

رفرنس دهی به روش ونکوور

ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺟﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺩﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻮﻥ، ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺍﺗﻼﻑ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻛﺎﻫﺪ. ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺗﻲ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ.
ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻭ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﺵ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ. ﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺍﻛﺜﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻭﻧﻜﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ.

 

ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻭﻧﻜﻮوﺭ

ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻛﻮﭼﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﺩﺑﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﺠﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ 1978 ﺩﺭ ﻭﻧﻜﻮﺭ ﮔﺮﺩ ﻫﻢ ﺁﻣﺪﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻓﺮﻣﺖ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﺷﺪ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻭﻧﻜﻮﺭ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ. ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻗﺒﻼ ًﺗﻮﺳﻂ
National library of medicine ﻛﻪ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ 1979 ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﺷﺪ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ.

ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻭﻧﻜﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺳﺮﺩﺑﻴﺮﺍﻥ ژﻭﺭﻧﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ )International committee of medical Journal Editors (ICMJE ﺑﺴﻂ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻳﻚ ﺑﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﺩﻫﻤﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻨﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ ﺍﺧﻼﻗﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻭ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﻻ ﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺪﻧﻈﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻮﻟﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺛﺒﺖ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪﻧﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺗﺎ ﻛﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﻠﺰﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﭼﺎپ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺯﻳﺴﺘﻲ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺎپ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻣﻠﺰﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ 1997 ﻭ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ 1999 ﻭ 2000 ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍً ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ.

ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ 2003 ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ ًﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﻛﺮﺩ. ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺼﻮﺑﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ 2005 ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ.

ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻭﻧﻜﻮﺭ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ. ﻧﺎﻡ ﻣﺠﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ index medicus ﺛﺒﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﻔﻒ ﻫﺮ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ National library of Medicine ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻭﻧﻜﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻣﺠﻼﺕ ﻓﺮﻣﺖ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻣﺜﻼ ًﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻣﺠﻼﺕ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ 502-509 ، ﻭ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺩﻭﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ 502-9، ﻭ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻣﺠﻼﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﻫﺎ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ.

ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭ ﺵ ﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﻩ ﻣﻨﺎﺑ ﻊ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ

ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻭﻧﻜﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ژﻭﺭﻧﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﻮﻳﺲ (Superscript) ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ:

It is impossible to record a stable maxillomandibular relationship in patients with remporomandibular   disfunction1.

ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ: ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﻣﺎ (،) ﻳﺎ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ (.) ﻳﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻮﻟﻮﻥ (,) ﻭ ﺳﻤﻲ ﻛﻮﻟﻮﻥ (؛) ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﻨﺪ.

ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ. ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ ً

ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺩﻭ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﻚ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺪﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻠﻮﻱ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ ﻣﺜﻞ:

 … There is strong evidence of benefit in elderly patients 12, 13

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﻚ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻠﻮﻱ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ:

… 12-14 There is strong evidence of benefit in elderly patients

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻣﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻫﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ:

… 14-There is strong evidence of benefit in elderly patients 10, 12

ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ  

ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.

ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻳﺮﻧﻮﻳﺲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻳﺎ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ، ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.

ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻫﺎ ﻱ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ

ﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺎﻭﻱ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻭﻟﻲ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﺍﮔﺮ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻮﺩ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﺪﻫﻴﺪ. ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ًﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﻳﺪ. ﺩﺭ ﻋﻮﺽ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﻡ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻳﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ: [ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ] : ﺩﺭ [ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ]

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ:

 There is strong evidence of benefit in elderly patients 12, …

ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﻮﻕ:

Johnson VA, Brun-Vezicnet F. Update of the drug resistance mutations is HIV-1. top HIV Med 2005;

13: 125-31. In: Deeks SG. Antiretviral treatment of HIV infected adults. BMJ 2006; 332: 1489-93.

طﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ :

ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺠﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺪﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﻻﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﻔﻒ (abraviate )  ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ژﻭﺭﻧﺎﻝ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ (Medline)

Index Medics ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ.

ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ:

نام 6 نویسنده اول در ابتدا نوشته می شود و چنانچه تعداد نویسندگان از این بیشتر باشد کلمه et al آورده می شود

1- Halpten SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res 2002; 935 (1-2): 40-6.

ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻼﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﺟﻠﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺠﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ issue  ﺭﺍ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ. (ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﺠﻼﺕ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﭼﺎپ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ)

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ:

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV – infected patients. N Engl J Med 2002; 284-7.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻣﺠﻠﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ issue  ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻣﺜﻞ:

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, caplan AL. Solid – organ trans plantation in HIV infected patients. N Engl J Med 2002 Jul 25; 347(4): 284-7.

ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﻼً: ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﭼﺎپ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻣﺠﻠﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ.

Enzenberger W, Fischer PA. Metronome in parkinson’s disease [letter]. Lancet 1996; 347:1337.

Petretz B, Bimstein E. Periodontal status in childhood and earlyadolescence. [ Abstract]. J Clin Pediatr Dent 1996; 20(3): 229-32.

ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻳﺎ data base ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻲ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ:

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid – organ trans plantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med  2002; 347(4): 284-7. Cited in PubMed; PMID /2/40307.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻼﺕ (Organization) ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ:

Diabets prevention program research group. Hypertension, insulin and proinsulin in participants with inpared glucose tolerance. J Appl Physion 2002; 40(5): 679-86.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻫﻢ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻭ ﻫﻢ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ، ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﻣﺠﻠﻪ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻣﺜﻞ:

 21st  Century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ 2002; 325 (7357): 184.

ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ًﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﻻﻳﻦ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﺍﻧﺘﺰ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﺨﻔﻒ ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎﻱ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ.

ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﻣﺠﻠﻪ (Volume) ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺿﻤﻴﻤﻪ (Supplement) ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺟﻠﺪ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ Suppl  ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﺍﻧﺘﺰ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ:

Gazzard B. British HIV Association guidelines for the treatment of HIV infected adults with antiretroviral  therapy.  HIV Med 2005; 6(Suppl 2): 1-61.

Warner JO, Jones CA, Kilburn SA. Pre natal sensitization in humans. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2000; 11 Suppl 13: 6-8.

ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ issue ﺟﺰء ﺿﻤﻴﻤﻪ ﻣﺠﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ Suppl ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ issue ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ:

Glauser TA. Integration clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology 2002; 58(12 Suppl 7): 6-12.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ volume ﺩﺭ ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ issue ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ issue ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﺍﻧﺘﺰ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ:

 Gonzales JB. Use of tissue conditioners and resilient liners. Dent Clin North AM 1997; (2)249-59.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ volume ﻭ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ issue ﻫﻴﭽﻜﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ، ﻣﺎﻩ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻣﺜﻞ:

Ahrar K. Development of a large animal model for lung tumors. J Vasc Interv Radial 2002 Jun: 1-6.

ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﻣﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻲ 

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭ ﻳﻚ website ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮ ﻭ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﻣﺖ ﭼﺎﭘﻲ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ، ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮ ﻭ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻭ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ / ﻭﺏ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ / ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

Joenes DW, Sutow EJ, Graham BS. Influence of plasticizer on soft polymer gelation. J Dent Res 1986; 65(5): 634-42.
Available from: http://bmj. journals.com/cgi/content/full/333/7571/723 (accessed 10 Oct2006).

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ. ﻧﺎﻡ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ، ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ version  ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ:

Hemodynamic III: The ups and downs of hemodynamic [computer program]. Version  2.2. Orlando (FL): Computerized educational systems, 1993.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ Homepage/ website  ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻧﺎﻡ homepage ، ﻣﺤﻞ ﺁﻥ، ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ، ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ update ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ:

Cancer – pain. Org [homepage on the Internt]. New York: Association of cancer online Resources, Inc; c  2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain-org/.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ  ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻮﻳﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺰﻳﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻴﻮﻣﻪ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﭘﺨﺶ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ:

” The world’s first face transplant”, BB C2, 17 Oct 2006.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺷﻨﻴﺪﻥ ﻣﻄﻠﺒﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻤﻴﻨﺎﺭ ﻳﺎ … ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ ﻭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ:

Arsenic in Drinking water: An update on the science; Benefite and cost: Hearing Before the subcomm. On Environment. Technology of the House comm.com. on science, 107th cong, 1St sess. (Oct. 4, 2001).

ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ 

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺷﺨﺎﺻﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ، ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ، ﺷﻤﺎﺭ(ﻭﻳﺮﺍﻳﺶ) ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ed ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ، ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺷﺮ ﺁﻥ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ. (ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻼﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ).

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ:

Anusavice KJ. Philip’s science of dental materials. 10th ed. Philadelphia: WB sunders; 1996. Kennedy I, Grubb A. Medical law. London: Butterworth; 2000.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺳﺘﺎﺭ (editor) ﻳﺎ ﻣﺆﻟﻒ (complier) ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ

  :ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻣﺜﻞ:

compiler  ﻳﺎeditorﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻛﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ Johnson CD, Taylor I, editors. Recent advances in surgery. 2nd ed. Edingburg: Churchill living stone;2000.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻓﺼﻠﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺁﻥ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺳﭙﺲ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ :in ﻭ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺳﺘﺎﺭ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ، ﺳﭙﺲ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺸﺮ، ﻧﺎﺷﺮ، ﺳﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ (ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ).

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ:

Watkins AD, Neuropharmacology. In: Kay AB, Foster JA, editors. Allergy and allergic diseases. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1997. P 505- 17.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻳﻚ ﻛﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ (conference proceedings) ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺎپ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﺳﺘﺎﺭﺍﻥ، ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ، ﺳﺎﻝ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺁﻥ ﺳﭙﺲ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺷﺮ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻣﺜﺎﻝ:

Kimura J, Shibasaki H, editors. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceeding of the 10th International congress of EMG and clinical Neurophysiology; 1995 Oct 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amesterdam: Elsevier; 1996.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻛﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﭽﻪ ﻛﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺎپ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ، ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ، ﺳﭙﺲ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ  :In ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻛﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ ﻭ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ editors ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﻨﮕﺮﻩ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻩ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ. ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺸﺮ، ﻧﺎﺷﺮ، ﺳﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ.

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ:

Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data protection in medical informatics. In: Lun KC, Degoulet P, editors. MEDINFO 72. Proceeding of the 7th world congress on Medical informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10;  Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North- Holland, 1992. P1561-5.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﺖ، ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮﻩ، ﻣﺤﻞ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ:

  NHS Executive. Clinical governance: quality in the new NHS. London: Department of Health, 1999.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﺠﻮ، ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺮﻭﺷﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

Bunker VM. Nutrition in the elderly with particular references to essential trace elements [ dissertation].   Southampton England: univ. Southampton; 1987.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﻟﻐﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﺩﻳﻜﺸﻨﺮﻱ، ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﻧﺸﺮ، ﻣﺤﻞ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺷﺮ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ، ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ:

Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary. 29th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000. Filamin; P 675.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺭﻭﺯﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ، ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﺭﻭﺯﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ، ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻳﺎ section ﺁﻥ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ

  .(ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ )ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﺍﻧﺘﺰ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ

Charter D. Patients die after wrong transplant. The times 2001 Sept 13; Sect. A: 2(Col. 4).

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ: ﻧﺎﻡ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﻭ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺷﻐﻠﻲ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ، ﻧﻮﻉ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺮﻭﺷﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻭ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻧﺎﺷﺮ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ:

Pralt B, Flick P, Vynne C, Cardiographers. Biodiversity hotspots [map]. Washington: Conservation International; 2000.

ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ

ﺩﺭ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﻋﻢ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ، ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ، ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻋﻼﻳﻢ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﻣﺜﻼً:

ﻧﻘﻄﻪ 

 ﺍﻟﻒ) ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ

ﺏ ) ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ

ﺝ ) ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ

ﻭﻳﺮﮔﻮﻝ

 ﺍﻟﻒ) ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﺪﺍﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﺟﺰﺍء ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺜﻼ ًﺍﺳﺎﻣﻲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻢ

ﺏ ) ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﺪﺍﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﮔﻲ ﻭ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ

ﺳﻤﻲ ﻛﻮﻟﻮﻥ ( ؛ )

ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﺟﺰﺍء ﺑﺰﺭﮔﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﺜﻞ: ﺍﻟﻒ( ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ

ﺏ ) ﺩﺭ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ، ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.(ﺩﺭ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﮔﻲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻋﻼﻣﺘﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﻤﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ).

ﺩﻭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ 

ﺩﺭ ﺳﻪ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ:

ﺍﻟﻒ) ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻭ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻧﺎﺷﺮ ﻫﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻭ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﺜﻼً:  ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ: ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﻳﺎ St. Louis: Mosby

ﺏ) ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻫﻢ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻭ ﻫﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ

ج ) ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻣﺜﻼ .Endocoine disorders: pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus

ﮔﻴﻮﻣﻪ « » : 

ﺩﺭ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﭼﺎپ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻼﺕ، ﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ، ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻮﺗﻠﻮﻳﺰﻳﻮﻧﻲ، ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻤﻴﻨﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺷﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﭼﺎپ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﻣﺜﻞ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ، ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﮔﻴﻮﻣﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﻞ : ﺭﺍﺳﺘﻲ ﺍﺭﺩﻛﺎﻧﻲ، ﻣﺠﻴﺪ. « ﭘﻴﻮﻧﺪ ﻫﭙﺎﺗﻮﺳﻴﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﻮﺭﺕ ﻛﺒﺪ ﺧﺮﮔﻮﺵ». ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻲ ﺟﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ، ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ، ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺍﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ، 1372.

ﺍﻟﻒ) ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ

ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻛﻪ:

1ـ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺗﺎ 3 ﻧﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﻔﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ. 2ـ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﭼﺎپ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻼﺕ، ﺳﻤﻴﻨﺎﺭﻫﺎ، ﻓﺼﻠﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺷﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﭼﺎپ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﮔﻴﻮﻣﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ. ﻣﺜﺎﻝ: ﺟﻤﺸﻴﺪﻱ ﺣﻤﻴﺪﺭﺿﺎ. «ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻧﮕﺮ». ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻥ، ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ (8)6، ﺑﻬﺎﺭ 2 ،1374ـ3.

ﺏ) ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ

ﻧﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﮔﻲ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ. ﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ، ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻓﺎﻣﻴﻞ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻤﻴﻦ، ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺸﺮ، ﻧﺎﺷﺮ، ﺳﺎﻝ.

1) ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ

ﺣﺮﻱ، ﻋﺒﺎﺱ. ﺁﻳﻴﻦ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ. ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ: ﺩﺑﻴﺮﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﻴﺄﺕ ﺍﻣﻨﺎﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺨﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ، 1374.  ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺗﺎ ﺳﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻫﺮ ﺳﻪ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻔﺮ ﺳﻮﻡ ﻭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

2) ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻲ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ: ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ، ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺷﺮ ﻭ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻳﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ: ﺍﻃﻠﺲ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺑﺪﻥ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ. ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ: ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﺗﻮﮔﺮﺍﻓﻲ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ، 1370.

3) ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺭﮔﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺁﻥ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ، ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺷﺮ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

4) ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍ ﻥ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﻣﻌﺮﻓ ﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﮔﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ، ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﮔﻲ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻤﻴﻦ، ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺷﺮ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﻞ: ﺑﻴﺸﺎﺭﺍ، ﺳﻤﻴﺮ. ﺍﺭﺗﻮﺩﻧﺴﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺎﺭﺍ. ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﺳﻴﺪﺣﻤﻴﺪ ﺭﺍﺟﻲ، ﻋﻠﻲ ﻃﻴﺒﻲ. ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ: ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺷﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ، 1381. ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﻳﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﭘﺲ ﺍ ﺯﺍﺳﻢ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

5) ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﻱ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪ ﻩ ﺍﺳ ﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﮔﻲ ﻭ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺁﻥ ﻓﺼﻞ، ﺳﭙﺲ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﺩﺭ: ﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﮔﻲ ﻭ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ، ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺷﺮ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ: ﺭﺍﺩﻣﻨﺶ، ﺣﺴﻦ. «ﻧﻘﺶ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻃﻔﺎﻝ» ﺩﺭ: ﺍﺳﺪﻱ، ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ. ﻃﺐ ﺍﻃﻔﺎﻝ. ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ: ﺗﻮﺱ، 1371.

ﺝ) ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ: 

ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﮔﻲ ﻭ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﺠﻮﻱ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ، ﺳﭙﺲ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻴﻮﻣﻪ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻲ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ: ﺍﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻤﻲ ﭼﻬﺎﺭﻡ، ﻣﺤﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﻤﺎﻋﻴﻞ. «ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ MTAD ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﺑﺮﺷﻲ ﺍﺩﻫﺰﻳﻮﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻠﻒ ﺍچ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺎﺝ». ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻲ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻤﻲ، ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﺩﻧﺪﺍﻧﭙﺰﺷﻜﻲ، ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺍﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ، 1384.

ﺩ) ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺒﻚ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ:  

ﻧﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﮔﻲ ﻭ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ، ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻴﻮﻣﻪ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻣﺠﻠﻪ، ﺳﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻩ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ: ﺩﻳﻬﻴﻤﻲ، ﭘﺮﻭﻳﺰ؛ ﻣﺤﺰﻭﻧﻲ، ﭘﺮﻭﻳﻦ؛ ﺗﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻧﻴﺎ، ﻧﻜﻴﺴﺎ. « ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻴﻮﺍﭘﻲ ﺗﻠﻴﺎﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻫﻴﺴﺘﻮژﻧﺰﭘﻠﺌﻮﻣﻮﺭﻓﻴﻚ ﺁﺩﻧﻮﻣﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻮﻛﻮﺍﭘﻲ ﺩﺭﻣﻮﺋﻴﺪ ﻛﺎﺭﺳﻴﻨﻮﻣﺎﻱ ﻏﺪﺩ ﺑﺰﺍﻗﻲ» ﻣﺠﻠﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﺩﻧﺪﺍﻧﭙﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺷﻬﻴﺪ ﺑﻬﺸﺘﻲ، ﺩﻭﺭﻩ 24 ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ 1 ﺑﻬﺎﺭ 85 :1385 ـ 76.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺳﻤﻴﻨﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﻛﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻛﻨﮕﺮﻩ، ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ، ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺰﺍﺭﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ: ﻧﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﻫﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺳﺮﺍﺳﺮﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺍﻧﺪﻭﺩﻧﺘﻴﺴﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ، ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ، ﺍﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ: ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺍﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ، 1385.

ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻤﻴﻨﺎﺭ ﻳﺎ ﻛﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻓﺮﻧﺲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﻧﺎﻡ ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﮔﻲ ﻭ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﻩ، ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻴﻮﻣﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﺩﺭ: ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻛﻨﮕﺮﻩ، ﻣﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺑﺮﮔﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﻛﻨﮕﺮﻩ، ﻣﺤﻞ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺰﺍﺭ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ، ﺳﺎﻝ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ.

ﻣﺜﺎﻝ: ﺯﺍﺭﻋﻲ، ﻣﻴﻨﺎ. « ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺙ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﻳﺸﻪ» ﺩﺭ: ﻧﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﻫﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺳﺮﺍﺳﺮﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺍﻧﺪﻭﺩﻧﺘﻴﺴﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻧﻲ (ﺍﻭﻝ ﺗﺎ ﺳﻮﻡ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻮﺭ) ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ، ﺍﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ: ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺍﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ، 1385.

منابع :

1- University of Southampton Writing references your work http://www.soton.ac.uk/library/ subjects/references/index.html

2- International committee of Medical Journal Editors: Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedicl Journals: Writing and editing for Biomedical publication: available in: HTTP://www.icmje.org/#aboutur.

3- References Styles: Harvard and Vancoaver (25 Aug 2006). Available In: http://www.bma.org.uk/ap.nsf/content/ LIBReferencesstyle.

4- National library of medical Journal editor’s uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical Journals: Sample reference. Available in: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform-requirements.html.

5ـ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﻲ ﺍﺭﺩﻛﺎﻧﻲ، ﻣﻬﺪﻱ؛ ﺍﺩﻳﺒﻲ، ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻥ. ﺷﻴﻮﻩ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﺵ ﻣﺘﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ. ﺍﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ: ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺍﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ، 1374